Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Despite efficient carbon monitoring system and the commercialization of battery technology for intra-port transportation, port management are found not adopting these environmental yet costly equipments. Port authority who regulates environmental policies lacks leverage to impose tangible reduction on emission through concession. This model integrates sustainability into port equipment expansion theory by quantifying viable equipment electrification profile while observing the constraints of operation, cost and environment. A benchmark emission reduction standard (ERS) is surveyed by Delphi method as environmental demand to determine the electrification of port equipments. The results from Port of Tanjung Pelepas case study suggest an ERS implemented lower than 4% reduction a year is viable to retrofit and replace all electric rubber-tired gantries and prime movers. The simulation model allows informed decision for all port agents to establish viable environmental policies for sustainable port operations.